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Functions of the Economy of All People’s Ownership in Contemporary China

At present, we must attach great importance to the economic issue of ownership by the whole people. It is necessary to understand from the general perspective of the inevitable trend of human society to the development of scientific socialism and the special perspective of practicing scientific socialism from the reality of China’s national conditions. The ownership of the whole people is the national of China at this stage.

The economic component of the future that reflects the characteristics of scientific socialism. Based on historical dialectics, Marx clarified the basic economic characteristics of scientific socialism, namely, public ownership, scientific production, planned adjustment, and pay-for-work (distribution according to work). This is the “gene” of the communist economy, if the current stage is “the whole people.” Ownership “lost the nature of these “genes”, then loses its internal connection with communist public ownership; at this stage, “the ownership of the whole people” has many characteristics of China’s national conditions at this stage, mainly because the economic scope does not cover the whole society, and the means of production still have The price form and the “social form” and the functions of the management center must still be borne by the state, and the distribution according to work cannot be implemented uniformly. The external non-public economy also exists. Recognizing these characteristics helps to proceed from reality and consolidate and develop. The reality of the ownership economy is the state-owned economy.

It is necessary for us to adhere to the materialist dialectics that combines general and special, consciously safeguard the integrity of the state-owned economy, uphold the independence of the state-owned economy, resolutely safeguard the dominant position of the state-owned economy in the national economy, and wholeheartedly rely on the working class to consolidate and develop the state-owned economy. To clarify the relationship between ownership of the whole people and other economic components, to give priority to the development of the urban and rural collective economy led by the state-owned economy, to adhere to the state-owned economy to dominate the private sector, and to adhere to the state-owned economy to control the foreign economy.

Under the new situation of comprehensively deepening reform and opening up, fully understanding the ownership of the whole nation is the economic component of China’s current national economy that reflects the characteristics of future scientific socialism. This is the correct direction for holding high the banner of scientific socialism and grasping the practice of economic system reform. very important.

Why do you want to talk about this topic at present? Because there are many confused ideas and misconceptions in the public opinion circles that despise the economy of the whole people, and some even go to the seriousness of ignoring and blatantly violating the Constitution. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China solemnly stipulates that “the socialist system is the fundamental system of the People’s Republic of China”; “the basis of the socialist economic system of the People’s Republic of China is the socialist public ownership of the means of production, that is, the ownership of the whole people and the collective ownership of the working masses”; The state-owned economy, that is, the socialist economy under the ownership of the whole people, is the leading force in the national economy. The state guarantees the consolidation and development of the state-owned economy.”

However, some people think that the state-owned economy should be changed to a mixed-ownership economy. This is tantamount to denying the existence of an independent form of ownership by the whole people. Some people have publicly called for “downgrading and eliminating the classification of state-owned enterprises, private enterprises, and foreign-owned enterprises” [2], which is equivalent to The abolition of the ownership economy of the whole people and its state-owned enterprises; some people interpret the role of state-owned capital (that is, the form of capital existence of the means of production owned by the whole people in the production of goods) as “only two functions: one, policy function, that is, as the government A resource that implements special public goals. Second, the profit function, access to financial returns for public services.” [3] This is equivalent to the state-owned capital of China’s socialist nature, just like the state-owned capital of developed capitalist countries, only exercise Stabilizing the general service function of social order, and denying China’s state-owned economy is the dominant force in the national economy. Related to this, the real state-owned economy has been seriously declining, the leading role of the state-owned economy has been severely weakened, and the macroeconomic structure has experienced serious imbalances. It can be seen that we must attach great importance to the economic issues of ownership by all people from the combination of theory and practice.

General Secretary Xi pointed out that “the basic principles of scientific socialism cannot be lost. If it is lost, it is not socialism. At the same time, scientific socialism is by no means a static dogma.” [4] The basic principle of scientific socialism is Marx’s application of historical materialism. The basic contradiction of capitalist society and the inevitable trend of its development, the scientific conclusions obtained; and the “public ownership” or “social ownership” of production materials [5] (hereinafter “public ownership”) is the basic economic principle of scientific socialism.

The proletariat unites the working people, carries out the socialist revolution against the bourgeoisie and all exploiting classes, establishes the dictatorship of the proletariat, establishes, consolidates and develops socialist public ownership, and finally eliminates private ownership. This is the most basic principle of economic practice of scientific socialism. . Therefore, consolidating and developing the public sector economy at this stage, that is, adhering to the principle of scientific socialism, is by no means a dogmatism. The economy of ownership by the whole people is an economic component that reflects the characteristics of the future scientific socialist economy in the contemporary Chinese national economy.

Only by adhering to the socialist ownership system of the means of production can we truly draw a line between the scientific socialism and capitalism, and the social system of the same exploitative nature. Historical materialism reveals that the most hidden economic foundation of a society in a certain historical period is “the direct relationship between the ownership of production conditions and the direct producers”, that is, the ownership of production materials (hereinafter referred to as ownership).

From the perspective of the development of human society, only by distinguishing the different historical forms of the main ownership, can we scientifically distinguish the economic characteristics of different stages of historical development; from the horizontal perspective of certain historical stages of human society, only the main ones that distinguish different societies The ownership of the means of production can correctly distinguish the economic base or economic system characteristics of different societies. It can be said that this basic principle of historical materialism guides contemporary China to establish a public-owned economic foundation with socialist ownership by all as its core content. It is the core content of this ownership that shows the main features of the contemporary Chinese socialist economy. If we leave this kind of realistic characteristics to talk about the economic and political system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and talk about the problems of superstructure and ideology, apart from reflecting some shallow phenomena or causing confusion of ideas, no truth will be obtained.

We understand that ownership by the whole people should occupy the dominant position in the national economy of contemporary China. It is the main economic feature of the contemporary Chinese socialist economic component. It is necessary to look at it from two angles. First, from a general perspective, that is, human society necessarily tends to scientific socialism. The perspective of development prospects; the first is a special perspective, that is, starting from the reality of China’s national conditions and practicing the direction of scientific socialist development.

Based on historical dialectics and based on the economic movement law of capitalist society, Marx profoundly revealed that the last private society of this human society must be transformed into a scientific socialist public ownership society, thus clarifying the general characteristics of scientific socialist ownership. This general feature shows a significant difference between the socialist economy and the capitalist economy.

Marx reveals that the basic contradiction of capitalist society is the contradiction between capitalist private ownership and production socialization. This contradiction is confrontational and manifests itself as a cyclical economic crisis. It is increasingly sharp and the final solution of contradictions is representative. The proletariat that produces the direction of social development, through the socialist revolution, overthrows the rule of the bourgeoisie, establishes the dictatorship of the proletariat, eliminates private ownership, and establishes a communist free association economy.

The foundation must be socialist public ownership, scientific socialism. Society is the first stage of communist society. The basic feature is that the means of production is already the “property of the producers” [7]. “The production materials are no longer privately produced and privately produced with the development of social production. They are only united. The producers can still be the means of production in the hands of [8]; “socialized people, the combined producers, will rationally regulate the material transformation between them and nature, placing them under their common control, Rather than letting it rule as a blind force; relying on the least amount of power to carry out this material transformation under the conditions that are most innocent and suitable for their human nature” [9]; Free People’s Union Public production materials are used for labor, and consciously use many of their individual labor as a social labor force.” “The planned distribution of the social time of labor, regulating the appropriate proportion of various labor workers with various needs. On the other hand, labor time is a measure of the share of producers in the joint labor, and is therefore a measure of the producer’s common products.

The scale of the share of the consumable part”; [10] “Limiting labor to a reasonable degree” [11] That is to say, the public ownership of scientific socialism is the common possession of the producers of the whole society. “Production materials produced by labor itself” [12], jointly engaged in planned and reasonable collaborative labor, and distribute personal consumption data according to the share of laborers in total labor time. These can be briefly summarized as public ownership, scientific production (reasonable adjustment of the material transformation relationship between man and nature), planned adjustment and distribution according to work (rewarding on the basis of the necessary social fund deduction), which is exactly what Marx reveals. The basic economic principles of scientific socialism are also the “genes” of the communist economy, that is, the general nature of the socialist economic system at the present stage of socialist public ownership, especially the “ownership of the whole people”. If these “genetic” natures are lost Then it loses its inner connection with communist public ownership and it is impossible to develop into the future of scientific socialism and communism.

Therefore, the general characteristics of scientific socialism or general economic principles are the inevitable result of the basic contradiction of capitalism, that is, the development of social socialization and the breakthrough of the development of capitalist production methods. If this is a kind of foresight, then it is not a “dream” component as some people say, but a well-founded scientific foresight. Not only is the cyclical crisis of today’s capitalist world justifying the correctness of this foresight, but it is also evidenced by the establishment of socialist countries and economic practice. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, under the guidance of Marxism and Mao Zedong Thought, our Party led the people of the whole country to achieve great victory in socialist transformation of capitalist industry and commerce and small private ownership agriculture in 1956, and established the foundation of public ownership economy centered on the ownership of the whole people. It proves theoretically and practically that the general characteristics of scientific socialist public ownership are realistic.

Understanding this inevitability and generality is the ideological basis for strengthening the belief in scientific socialism. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, many scholars of Marxist economics in China’s economics have understood the ownership of the whole people mainly from the general point of view, such as the understanding of the ownership of the whole people as the means of production “to the public,” and “to represent the entire people.” The possession and domination of the state of the dictatorship of the proletariat, “the ownership of the socialist state is also the ownership of socialism by the whole people.” In short, the ownership of the whole people is that “the means of production belong to the state that represents the whole people.” However, it is not enough to understand the current scientific socialist economy from the general level. Lessons learned tell us that cutting the reality directly with the general principles of scientific socialism will inevitably lead to simplistic and eagerness to seek “left” mistakes in economic work.

From the perspective of the particularity of the social form of the economy at the current stage determined by China’s national conditions, the current socialist ownership of the whole people (hereinafter referred to as the ownership of the whole people) has not yet developed to the stage of scientific socialism revealed by Marx. It has many characteristics at this stage. ,

The scope of ownership by the whole people does not cover the whole society. In the future stage of scientific socialism, the means of production are jointly owned by the producers of the whole society, but the current production materials have not reached this level. The means of production owned by the whole people, including “land and production materials produced by labor itself” are not yet Owned by all the people. Here, we should distinguish the “people” of the current political meaning from the “all people” of the producers of the means of production. Due to the limitation of the level of development of social productive forces, there are still many forms of ownership economy in China at this stage. The “all people” in the economy of ownership of the whole people can only be jointly owned by producers or working classes within the scope of ownership. If “the whole people” is understood as the owner of the means of production of the whole society, including collective ownership and private ownership, this is tantamount to acknowledging that the latter possesses two economic components of production materials, which is obviously unreasonable. Are workers in the private economy with capitalism included in the “all people”? Obviously, it is not included. It can only be said that they are still in the economic status of wage earners. This is a phenomenon in which the socialist economy cannot cover the whole society at this stage.

The means of production owned by the whole people still has a price form and a “social capital form” (referred to as “social capital”). In the future stage of scientific socialism, in accordance with Marx’s theoretical logic, although the “value decision” (the content of value, that is, the socially necessary labor time) still exists and plays a dominant role in regulating social labor in different production categories; [13] but value The form of the commodity currency has disappeared, and the capital form of the means of production has also been eliminated. The experience of China’s socialist economic practice proves that at this stage China is still in a social form of economic production with a high degree of commodity production.

The internal and external economic relations of the ownership economy of the whole people must be accounted for in the form of currency-value in the form of commodity value. The means of production must also undergo production, sales and purchase to carry out the process of value-added reproduction or economic cycle. It makes it a “social capital” form. Since there is a price form and a “social capital” form of production materials, it has a form of fetishism. If we cannot be guided by Marxist economics, we cannot see the essential difference between “social capital” and private capital, and we will not recognize that the essence of “social capital” is socialist production relations, not capitalist production relations; The “active drive” of the “capital” operating mechanism [14] is the working class, not the capitalist.

The functions of the management center of the economy of the entire people are still to be borne by the state. In the future stage of scientific socialism, the class has been eliminated, and the country has disappeared; the cooperative work of the whole society will be undertaken by the non-state specialized social and economic command and management supervision central agency. However, at this stage of China, there is still a class and a certain class struggle. The contemporary Chinese state is a tool for the reactionary class to implement class rule in the people’s democratic dictatorship (the Chinese form of the dictatorship of the proletariat); it also assumes the functions of the entire social economic management, including the management of the economy owned by the whole people. Although the countries of any era have the functions of managing social public affairs and maintaining public order, the countries in the history of human society are the products of class existence and struggle.

There is no such thing as a “national state” in the world, and the state is a tool for class rule. Therefore, at this stage, China’s ownership economy is called the “state-owned economy”, and the economy is based on the working class as the main body of leadership and management. The Constitution stipulates that “the leadership of the Communist Party of China is the most essential feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics.” From an economic perspective, this is concentrated in the economy of ownership by the whole people, because the leadership of the party is the leader of the working class vanguard. Therefore, at this stage, for the ownership of the whole people, it is necessary to implement the unification of the management of the central government of the “social capital” (state-owned capital) and the leadership of the party Central Committee.

The distribution according to work in the economy of ownership of the whole people cannot be implemented uniformly. In the future stage of scientific socialism, that is, the first stage of communist society, the whole society is unified

Without the distribution of commodity-currency relations according to work; under the premise of ensuring that the society expands reproduction, social management and social common needs, and makes necessary deductions for total social products, each worker will directly follow social consumption data according to society. The amount of social labor invested by the individual in the total labor volume is correspondingly obtained. “He gives the amount of labor in one form and returns it in another form.” [15] In short, the distribution according to work at that time was a “work-for-work exchange” under the premise of social deduction. However, at this stage of the country’s ownership-based economy, it is impossible to implement a unified distribution of labor according to the whole society.

The relationship between commodity and currency, the independent operation of enterprises as commodity producers, and the large differences between regions have determined that the principle of distribution according to work can only take the form of wages and implement them in the scope of enterprises in certain regions. This allows the same individual laborers to pay the same amount of labor in different regions and different enterprises, but there is a difference in wages. Only by seeing such differences or specialities, starting from reality and scientifically formulating income distribution policies will help to take necessary measures to eliminate the unfair distribution of income caused by objective reasons between regions and enterprises, and to mobilize the enthusiasm of workers.

The non-public economy is coexisting outside the ownership of the whole people. In the future stage of scientific socialism, since the means of production are jointly owned by “joint producers”, there will be no non-public economy. At this stage of China, coexisting with the economy of ownership by the whole people, there are collective ownership and a variety of non-public economic sectors including the capitalist economy of the Chinese and foreign capitals; enterprises that implement state-owned capital holdings, and even the “social capital” of the whole people Collective “social capital” or “private capital” is operated in one enterprise. There is bound to be a dialectical relationship between the ownership of the whole people and all other systems.

Among them, although ownership by the whole people and capitalist private ownership have a unified development of the social productivity of the Chinese nation, there are mutually exclusive and sometimes confrontational aspects, which are manifested in the competition for technical talents and raw materials at the enterprise level, and control and counter-control at the macro level. , planning adjustment and spontaneous production and other aspects. The ownership of the whole people will not only be affected by the economic invasion of private capitalist production relations between China and foreign countries, but also by the bourgeois ideology. Only by recognizing the confrontation between “social capital” and “private capital”, the parties to the ownership economy of the whole people can raise their consciousness from ideological and economic measures and prevent the privatization of “social capital.”

recognizing the difference or particularity of public ownership at the present stage and public ownership in the future stage of scientific socialism, it is helpful to proceed from reality and consolidate and develop the reality of the ownership economy. However, if this particularity is exaggerated, and even to weaken or negate the general economic principles of scientific socialism, it will make a right mistake and even engage in modern revisionism.

In order to avoid the mistake of “left” and right in understanding the current state-owned economy or the ownership system of the whole country in China, it is necessary to adhere to the materialist dialectics that combines general and special, not only to adhere to the general requirements of scientific socialism and public ownership, but also to Starting from the national conditions, it is necessary to clarify the special mode of operation of the state-owned economy at this stage. This is of great practical guiding value for the conscious implementation of the Constitution’s “state guarantees the consolidation and development of the state-owned economy” and reform and improvement of the economic management system.

First, we should consciously safeguard the integrity of the state-owned economy. Under the conditions of developing a “socialist market economy”, individual state-owned enterprises are also commodity producers, and they have relative opposition. However, for some time, there has been a tendency to remove the “relative” and ignore the integrity of the state-owned economy. Despise the overall tendency to manage the state-owned economy. It should be said that at this stage, state-owned enterprises should engage in commodity production, which is realistic, but because state-owned enterprises are an integral part of the state-owned economy, its independent operation can only be relative. The relative independent operation of state-owned enterprises should not be equated with the absolute independence of non-public enterprises. It must not be forgotten that the Constitution’s stipulations on the “state-owned economy, that is, the socialist system of ownership by the whole people” actually stipulates the integrity of the state-owned economy.

It is this holistic nature that reflects the united producers’ adaptation to socialization. The advantage of large-scale production is to consciously respect the law of value and obey the purpose of socialist production as a whole, and to implement the distribution of productive forces and the division of labor in production within the social sphere. The overall nature of the ownership of the state-owned economy is not only manifested in the form of “social capital” in the industry, but also in the three major forms of industrial, commercial and financial industries with state-owned “social capital”, and is also manifested in rural collectives except rural collectives. Land ownership outside ownership is a state. This in turn requires the state-owned economy to establish and improve the central authority for unified command and management, and to implement direct and indirect unified leadership of all state-owned economies or state-owned “social capital” in adapting to the market economy in terms of both value and use value. Only in this way can capital be overcome. The spontaneous competition and anarchy of the production of commodity goods have made the state-owned economy, which accounts for a large proportion, the dominant force in the stability movement and sustainable development of the entire national economic movement.

Second, adhere to the independence of the state-owned economy. The state-owned and all-ownership economy has the generality or commonality of the future scientific socialist public ownership. This is manifested in its independent existence under the historical conditions of multiple ownership economies at this stage. The state-owned industrial and commercial enterprises, state-owned banks and financial institutions, and the administrative organs and management rights institutions that reflect the overall ownership of state-owned capital are the specific manifestations of the independent existence of the state-owned economy. Without these specific forms of independent existence, it would be equivalent to the elimination of the state-owned economy of the ownership of the whole people. The emphasis on the independence of the state-owned economy is because there has been a popular view of the generalization of mixed ownership for some time. It seems that under the conditions of a market economy, all state-owned economies should be reformed to be mixed with the non-public economy, and private capital holdings The form of the shareholding system has real vitality.

This view is related to “the state-owned enterprise has monopoly, deviating from the market competition requirements”, “the state-owned economy lacks efficiency”, “the market economy can only be based on private ownership”, “private economy is efficient, and state-owned capital should take private capital.” The car is linked to neoliberal views. In fact, the shareholding system is only a form of enterprise in which different investors operate in a joint operation. It is worthwhile to talk about it as a mixed ownership system, because it only allows investment of different ownership systems to be mixed in use value form, but in value form. It is not mixed at all, but it is extremely clear, otherwise it is impossible to understand the profit divided by the amount of investment. Obviously, the shareholding system is premised on the existence of multiple independent ownership. It can be said that it is a derivative form of ownership, but it is not the “implementation form” of ownership. In “Capital”, Marx reveals that the form of the realization of the ownership of the means of production is essentially the realization of the “economic value” of ownership [16], that is, the owner obtains economic benefits through certain means through his own means of production. The implementation process, which is usually expressed in the form of income. [17] Therefore, the economic realization of the ownership of the means of production of the state-owned economy is achieved through various forms of interest such as profit, interest, land rent and income of producers of the whole people in different fields.

The growth of the economic value of the state-owned economy fundamentally depends on the consolidation and development of its various forms of independent existence. Of course, this does not rule out that some state-owned capital can engage in mixed ownership according to specific needs, but it should also be based on public capital holdings, with the aim of expanding state-owned capital itself. The idea that the state-owned economy can only be “mixed” with “private riders” and “free riders” is also a manifestation of the loss of self-confidence in the economy of ownership of the entire people.

Third, resolutely safeguard the status of the state-owned economy in the national economy. China’s state-owned economy is essentially a state-owned economy owned by the whole people. It is fundamentally different from the state-owned economy of modern capitalist countries. The latter is essentially an economic tool for the “total capitalists” and the bourgeoisie is forced to establish a basic economic contradiction. The so-called “stabilizer” of macroeconomic regulation can be more or less. The former is determined by the strategic goal of the development of scientific socialism. It is the state that deprives the bureaucratic capital of the people’s democratic dictatorship. Since its birth, it has become the dominant force of the entire national economy and will gradually grow with the development of the national economy.

To this end, for a state-owned, all-ownership economy, it should not be simply understood from ownership, but should be interpreted in terms of objective economic dialectics as a reproduction of the state-owned total “social” of production, circulation, distribution and consumption. Circulatory movement; it is the economic force that dominates the social science production and scales development in this process. Under the conditions of commodity production, due to the inherent spontaneity and competitiveness of such production, it is indispensable for the state macroeconomic regulation and control organs to strengthen the regulation of the plan. Among the various economic components, only the state-owned and all-ownership economy has the obedience to the state. In this sense, it can be said that the state-owned economy is the decisive force to avoid structural imbalances in the macro economy.

Now, there is a claim that if we want to promote economic efficiency, we should “all to the market to decide.” This argument seems to emphasize the role of the market in economic growth and development. However, it reverses the dialectical relationship between the decision and the decision between production and circulation revealed by historical materialism. It only sees that market relations can develop social division of labor and market competition. Can promote production growth, but can not see the inherent spontaneity of market relations, do not understand the scientific principles revealed by Marx: simple commodity circulation already contains the possibility of crisis; [18] and capitalist private ownership-based market economy, Inevitably, the anarchy of social income polarization and production will inevitably lead to an economic crisis due to the “proportional relationship between different production sectors and the restriction of social consumption power”. [19] In fact, through the fetishism concept, behind the market relationship is the relationship of commodity producers. If capitalism is privately made as the main economic component, then “all decisions are given to the market”, that is, everything is given to the capitalists to decide. Is it not? The “socialist market economy” that we are developing now should never be a market economy with private ownership as the mainstay, but a market economy with socialist public ownership as the mainstay. Therefore, it should be emphasized that the state-owned economy is the dominant force in the national economy, and it is promoting The determining power of the balance of supply and demand in the macroeconomic market.

Fourth, wholeheartedly rely on the working class to consolidate and develop the state-owned economy. In theory, the ownership and management of the state-owned ownership economy is a “social right” that completely rids out private rights. Rather than the capitalist economy, the “social rights” governing social production have been alienated into the private rights of capitalists. , resulting in confrontational contradictions. [20] In the practice of state-owned economic management in China, to implement this kind of “social rights”, we should correct the “separation of social production conditions and actual producers”, strive to achieve the combination between them, and realize the mastery of the working class itself.

This kind of “social rights.” It goes without saying that in practice, the working class, as the administrative body of the state-owned economy, needs to be implemented through certain regulatory agencies and individuals who represent their interests. The National People’s Congress is the ownership organ of the state-owned economy, while the state-owned assets management committee of the central government and other cooperative institutions are the organs that exercise the power to manage the state-owned economy. This requires individuals in the governing body to become representatives or personification of the “social rights” that govern social production. In order to truly implement the “social rights” of the working class for the management of the state-owned economy, first, we must follow the law of obeying the right of economic management, and require all kinds of administrative organs of the state-owned economy to regularly report the value-added and value-added development of state-owned capital to the National People’s Congress. Data on the relationship between income distribution and the proportion of ownership structure, and accept the supervision and management of people’s congresses at all levels in the country; and the people’s congresses at all levels in the country must establish a communication mechanism with the working people of the country, thus realizing the state-owned assets to become the working class and Property owned and managed by the working people themselves. Second, in the management of the state-owned economy, it is necessary to emphasize management democracy and wholeheartedly rely on the working class. Some people argue that “currently, we must focus on mobilizing entrepreneurs, innovating talents, enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity of cadres at all levels”; [21] and not mentioning the whole-hearted reliance on the working class is questionable. In fact, in the state-owned economy, entrepreneurs, innovative talents, and cadres at all levels are among the working class. Of course, we must pay attention to the role of them in engaging in complex labor. However, we cannot ignore them and ordinary workers. There is no absolute gap between the two, the latter can also become the former, and more importantly, scientific management and technology must be transformed into real productivity, which is not achieved by a few people. A large number of problems will appear in production practice first. Lines, and solving problems can not rely on workers engaged in specific operations. Therefore, to consolidate and develop the state-owned economy, we must unswervingly insist on relying wholeheartedly on the working class.

The Constitution’s stipulation that “public ownership is the main body” and socialist ownership of the economy “is the dominant force in the national economy”, clarifying the relationship between ownership of the whole people and other economic components, is the dominant and dominant relationship; from the contemporary Chinese national economy towards science From the point of view of the direction of socialist strategy, this is also the relationship between leadership and being led.

There is now a view that under the conditions of a market economy, various economic components are completely equal. To this end, it is advocated that “the state-owned and private economy are treated equally,” and “the same applies to loans and bond investments.” [22] These views theoretically violated the mistakes that Marx repeatedly criticized in the “Capital” to confuse commodity circulation with capital circulation, and this mistake is a common problem of bourgeois economics. Yes, in the commodity market or commodity circulation level, the goods produced by different ownership economies are equal exchanges of equal exchange; however, in the field of material production, the production conditions of different commodity producers are different and therefore unequal, different The nature and scale of the ownership of the means of production possessed by commodity producers are also different and therefore unequal.

The ownership structure of the means of production in the national economy belongs to the field of material production. Different economic components have always been unequal. Is it equal in capitalist society, monopoly enterprises, small and medium-sized enterprises, and small producers? In contemporary China, the Constitution stipulates that “public ownership is the main body” and “state-owned economy is the dominant force of the national economy”. Is it not clear that the non-public economic function in the field of material production is in an auxiliary, secondary, and dominant position? ? How can we use the equal relationship in the field of commodity circulation to steal the unequal relationship between different economic components in the field of material production? It should be noted that denying the dominant position of the public ownership and the dominant position of the state-owned economy, that is, deviating from the generality of scientific socialism, is also a violation of the provisions of our constitution, which cannot be allowed.

Therefore, the question that should be studied is not to change the dominant position of the state-owned economy into an “equality” status with the non-public economy, but to implement the dominant position of the state-owned economy in the practice of economic work under the premise of consolidating and developing the state-owned economy. . From the current practice, it is necessary to establish the following important understandings:

The state-owned economy is developing in coexistence with various economic components. There is a dialectical relationship between opposition and unity between various economic components. In these relationships, the relationship between the state-owned economy and the urban-rural collective economy is essentially the internal relationship of the labor class, mainly the relationship between workers and peasants; and the relationship between the state-owned economy and the Chinese and foreign private-sector economic components, mainly the working class and the national bourgeoisie, The relationship between foreign bourgeoisie.

The former relationship is politically determined. The Workers and Peasants Union is the foundation of the people’s democratic dictatorship and must be strengthened. From the economic point of view, there is no mutually exclusive relationship between the state-owned economy and the urban-rural collective economy, but a mutual support and cooperation. The realization of socialist new industrialization and informatization in the state-owned economy requires the support and cooperation of the urban collective economy. It requires collective peasants to provide food and productive raw materials for the working class. Only by consolidating and developing the collective ownership of agriculture, and promoting the rural collective economy.

Only by unified management and development can we promote the improvement of agricultural labor productivity and meet the objective requirements of the consolidation and development of the state-owned economy. The scientific socialist nature and advanced nature of the state-owned economy determines that it must dominate the development of the urban and rural collective economy. This leading role includes the leadership of the party, the working class unites with advanced ideas, educates collective peasants, helps peasants develop socialized collaborative production, and promotes mechanization and modernization of agriculture. To this end, the state must develop mutual support and cooperation between the state-owned economy and the urban-rural collective economy, and consolidate and develop the alliance of workers and peasants as “main, basic, first” [23].

In order to consolidate the alliance of workers and peasants and unite the working class, we should thoroughly eliminate the “privatization” trend of neoliberalism and correct the mistaken “restructuring” of the urban collective economy. The state should give full play to the advantages of the state-owned economy, drive and support the establishment of various types of collective enterprises, and gradually replace small and medium-sized private enterprises that are difficult to survive with collective enterprises.

Of course, it is also important to deal with the relationship between the state-owned economy and the private sector of Chinese and foreign private economy. However, this relationship is in a secondary position compared with the relationship between the workers and peasants, and this relationship must be subordinated to the alliance of workers and peasants. This is determined by the direction of adhering to scientific socialism and is determined by the dominant position of the state-owned economy.

The second is to insist that the state-owned economy dominates the private sector economy. The literal meaning of this dominant relationship is that the state-owned economy dominates and the state-owned economy controls and guides the development direction of the private economy. However, it is also necessary to use the viewpoint of scientific socialism to understand the relationship between the state-owned economy and the private economy. It must be noted that this relationship is of a confrontational nature, which is determined by the ultimate goal of scientific socialism to “eliminate private ownership”. However, under the conditions of China’s national conditions, this confrontational contradiction can be resolved in a non-confrontational way.

China’s Constitution stipulates that “the state adheres to the basic economic system in which the public ownership is the main body and the multi-ownership economy develops together in the primary stage of socialism” [24]. This common development reflects the use of non-confrontational methods to solve the state-owned economy and The relationship of the private economy. However, precisely because this relationship is of a confrontational nature, it cannot be understood that the common development can be equal and equal in the ownership structure, and the current proportional relationship can be solidified forever, and the relationship between socialist public ownership and capitalist private ownership cannot be It is equivalent to the internal relations of the working people of the Workers and Peasants Union. It must be scientifically understood that the existence of the contemporary private economy is determined by the level of development of China’s social productive forces.

Their existence is the need of the overall development of the national economy. However, this does not mean that the private economy with the employment of labor can be denied capitalist exploitation. Nature, denial, and cover up the contradictory nature of the contradiction between the state-owned economy and the private economy. [25] In fact, the phenomenon of “asset loss”, “brain drain” and “privatization” in the so-called state-owned enterprises, and the proportion of the state-owned economy in the national economic ownership structure have been seriously reduced, and the proportion of the private-owned economy has risen remarkably. The bad situation is the manifestation of the objective existence of this confrontational contradiction. Therefore, the state-owned economy controls and guides the development of the private-run economy. In essence, it has the nature of struggle in the current stage of taking socialism or taking capitalism, or the nature of the class struggle between the working class and the bourgeoisie who wins. By seeing this nature, we can correctly handle the “common development” relationship. From the current practical point of view, first of all, according to the Party Central Committee’s guidelines on governing the country according to the constitution and governing according to the constitution, we must resolutely take measures to increase the proportion of the state-owned economy in the ownership structure to ensure that the state-owned economy becomes the dominant force in the national economy.

The extent to which it and the collective economy constitute a public ownership economy in the national economy is the basic symbol of the scientific socialism of the entire national economy, and the basic premise that the state-owned economy can dominate the development of the non-public economy towards scientific socialism. . Second, the state government should adhere to the use, restriction and supervision of the private economy in accordance with the state of national economy and state-owned economic development, using state capitalism. Use, that is, to legally collect taxes, so that part of the profits created by wage workers in the private economy can be returned to the state and the working people; restrictions, that is, through the implementation of economic policies, to protect the interests of private enterprises in hiring workers, reduce the degree of exploitation of workers, and also limit private enterprises Blind expansion, away from the national plan to adjust the track.

Third, the state should also strengthen the direction of private enterprises in the direction of the socialist economy. It should be said that under the premise of public ownership as the mainstay, the state capitalist measures actually make the privately owned economy have a considerable degree of socialism, but open to the foreign economy. Under the conditions, we must also see that foreign businessmen, especially powerful multinational corporations, will try to attract domestic private capital and weaken our national economy. Therefore, we must also strengthen patriotic education on the private sector economy. At the same time, we should invest in foreign direct investment and domestic The connection of private capital is supervised and controlled. In short, correctly handling the dialectical relationship between the state-owned economy and the private economy can consolidate and develop the socialist basic economic system and promote the development of the national economy toward scientific socialism.

The third is to adhere to the state-owned economy to control the foreign capital economy. At this stage, China’s rational use of foreign capital to a certain extent is conducive to learning foreign advanced science and technology and management experience. This is China’s development as a developing country across the capitalist “Kaftin Canyon”, accelerating socialist industrialization and modernization. The strategic measures of opening up the economy to the outside world. This has created a major new problem in the relationship between the state-owned economy and the foreign economy.

Foreign capital generally comes from capitalist foreign countries and is foreign private capital. Although China does not need to guide foreign investment itself to develop in the direction of socialism, foreign ownership belongs to foreign investors. All foreign capital and its earned profits are ultimately foreign and not China; therefore, foreign capital and China’s national economy and state-owned economy are There are contradictions. This requires that the use of foreign capital must be reasonable and reasonable, that is, it must be based on safeguarding national economic security, promoting the consolidation of China’s socialist economy and the independent and independent development of the entire national economy.

At present, under the new situation of expanding the economy’s opening to the outside world, there has been an unrestricted introduction of foreign investment. Some even have introduced economic open policies, which also require many important industries to cancel the original regulations. Restrictions or “foreign access restrictions” even require the “cancellation of foreign shares ratio restrictions” in the financial industry. [26] According to the general rules of the market economy, in any field, as long as foreign capital is controlled, foreign capital is given control over the economic field.

Therefore, letting foreign investment be held in China’s important industrial sectors and financial sector is tantamount to giving foreign capital a green light to control China’s national economy. Under the realistic conditions that international financial monopoly capital still has considerable economic and technological strength, this policy once Implementation will undoubtedly make the dominant position of the public sector economy and the dominant position of the state-owned economy greatly threatened by the monopoly capital of international finance.

Some people have argued that China’s relevant industrial sectors are already very competitive in the market, and that restrictions on foreign investment holdings are liberalized. It is impossible to control de facto foreign investment. Since China is going to invest abroad, it can be controlled abroad, and it should be liberalized. Foreign investment in China. It is necessary for us to use the historical dialectics and the basic views of Marxist political economy, criticize the idea of ​​introducing foreign capital without restrictions, and clarify some plausible misunderstandings.

First, we must understand the phenomenon and nature of the introduction of foreign investment. From a phenomenological point of view, foreign direct investment in mainland China can solve the problem of insufficient funds for China’s development of the economy, expanding the employment of Chinese workers, bringing advanced foreign management experience and advanced science and technology, and providing tax revenue for the Chinese government.

Foreign capital has the nature of capital. The nature of capital is to pursue profits. It is necessary for foreign capital to expand market share in China and earn high profits. Otherwise, it will not invest in China, especially for multinational corporations. As Comrade Chen Yun profoundly pointed out, “foreign capitalists are also capitalists. The profits they earn from trading will never be lower than the average profits of the international market.”[27]

According to Marx’s principle of simple reproduction of capital and accumulation of capital, even if the first investment of foreign investors is its own capital, after the continuous reproduction process, it must be replaced by the surplus value created by Chinese workers; under the conditions of expanding reproduction, This substitution will be greater than the foreign investment originally invested by foreign investors, because the process of continuous accumulation of private capital is actually the process of continually using the unpaid work of workers to occupy the new unpaid work created by the workers. [28] For this reason, the view that the introduction of foreign capital is “foreigners take profits away and leave capital” is unscientific. In fact, foreign investors not only have the kind of profits, but also take investment, leaving only the shape of things. .

For foreign direct investment, in order to pursue the high profit nature, in order to occupy the Chinese market, it will inevitably compete with Chinese national enterprises and state-owned enterprises in the market, and will dig up the technology of domestic enterprises, especially state-owned advanced enterprises, by means of improving employee compensation. Talents; it will lead to the bankruptcy of national enterprises with poor competitiveness and low organic (labor-intensive), resulting in the number of domestic unemployed workers being greater than the number of foreign-employed workers, and absolutely increasing unemployment. Therefore, although the foreign economy and the Chinese national economy and the state-owned economy have a unified and cooperative side, they are more antagonistic and even confrontational.

Western development economics The so-called foreign direct investment will produce a “spill effect” on advanced technology, which is very limited and cannot be exaggerated. The practice of introducing foreign capital in China shows that foreign businessmen are always in the name of safeguarding intellectual property rights, and they are absolutely secret and not willing to disclose them. The so-called “market-for-technology” can only be wishful thinking. Therefore, China’s state-owned economy must go beyond the world’s advanced level. It is impossible to achieve its goal by relying on foreign capital. Only the principle of self-reliance and hard work should be adhered to.

It must not be forgotten that the foreign economy has the real possibility of attracting China’s private economy. Under the condition that the state-owned economy is weakened, once some private enterprises are caught in a business dilemma, it will inevitably find a strong foreign-funded enterprise as a backing and become a vassal of foreign capital. This phenomenon is uncontrollable and will inevitably weaken the power of the entire national economy.

It can be seen that China has made a rational use of foreign capital from the historical situation that is far behind the productivity of the developed capitalist countries, and it is to “take it first, and must give it first”, that is, to learn from foreign advanced technology and management experience, rather Let foreign businessmen take away part of the surplus value created by Chinese workers. As long as we adhere to the principle of rational introduction and use of foreign capital, our country’s benefits can be greater than the lost benefits.

This is completely different from the restriction of the introduction of foreign investment, and even letting foreign capital control China’s industry. And if some people say that China’s industrial sector market competitiveness is already very strong, it is impossible to control the actual foreign capital. If so, is it still necessary to introduce foreign capital? As for the few cases in which foreign investment is controlled by foreign countries in China, the policy of letting foreign capital in the industrial holding of China is defended. This is an explanation of the general and logically untenable. It should be noted that the phenomenon of individual foreign investment holdings should be treated in a concrete manner. This is completely different from the general indulgence of foreign investment holdings.

Second, we should understand the relationship between the state-owned economy and the foreign-funded economy based on the principles of commonality and distinction between commodity circulation and capital circulation revealed by Marx. From the perspective of commodity circulation or international trade relations, commodities between the two countries are equal as long as they follow the rules of international values. As long as international trade expands to countries, it can be said that international trade has formed a unified world market. However, from the perspective of the capital circulation relationship including the production of materials, the capital of each country reflects a certain ownership relationship of production materials.

They all have the nature of a certain nation-state, and each has a boundary between capital ownership and national economic interests. The national economy is a separate national economic system with country boundaries, and it is impossible to leave only the global border. In particular, it should be noted that the circulation of international financial monopoly capital and the circulation of socialist capital embodies the opposition between capitalist production relations and socialist production relations. This is the opposition between the two economic systems and is objectively antagonistic. It is impossible to “integrate”. Therefore, from the perspective of capital circulation, the equality of national economic relations does not mean the mutual equality of international trade import and export relations, but mainly the equality of mutual investment between countries and the equality of profits from each other.

Therefore, unless it becomes a vassal state of an imperialist country, the countries of the world cannot face the independence of the national economy and the national economic interests in the face of economic power. Since China’s state-owned economy is the dominant force of the national economy, it must become the mainstay of safeguarding the national economic interests of the country. Therefore, it must lead the introduction of foreign capital and control the introduction of foreign capital.

The so-called “promoting domestic and foreign-funded enterprises to treat each other equally and fair competition” actually copied the view of the bourgeois vulgar economics that confused commodity circulation and capital circulation. In practice, it is bound to deny the independence and autonomy of the national economy. Foreign capital damages national economic interests and weakens the dominant power of the state-owned economy. And this is the idea of ​​neoliberalism. As a mouthpiece of international financial monopoly capital, neo-liberalism advocates the abolition of national markets, the abolition of national economies, the promotion of “economic globalization” without a country, and the “investment liberalization” of the world, and advocates the abolition of macro-management of governments by their governments.

It is for the imperialist countries to rely on the economic strength to control the economic services of developing countries. In fact, market competition between capitals is always impossible for large capital to control, exclude, and swallow small capital. The kind of demand for “one-size-fits-all” for domestic and foreign-funded enterprises is highly hypocritical and deceptive. Therefore, in the relationship between the state-owned economy and the foreign-funded economy, the state-owned economy can only become the dominant force of the national economy if it is in an overwhelming advantage and must control and restrict the circulation of foreign capital in its own country. To this end, the relevant state departments must carry out the necessary macro control over the introduction of foreign capital, and resolutely safeguard the dominant position of the state-owned economy. The kind of government that believes that the government does not need to control in the domestic market should only act as a “referee” for “fair competition” between Chinese and foreign capital. The point of view must be denied.

Third, the state-owned economy plays a leading role in the national economy and requires the use of foreign capital to be included in the adjustment of the macroeconomic plan. This is to follow the society revealed by Marx.

The objective requirements of the law of proportional development. From the perspective of direct use of foreign capital, once foreign capital enters China, it actually enters a certain industrial field of China’s economy to a large extent, and it will enter the relationship between the two major categories of social reproduction in input and output. If it is not controlled, as freely introductory as neo-liberal advocates, then it will inevitably lead to a large amount of foreign investment when it is profitable, and when it is unprofitable, it will go out a lot. This will inevitably lead to various industrial sectors of the national economy. The proportional relationship between them is constantly oscillating, resulting in imbalances in the macroeconomic structure and even an economic crisis.

From this, it can be seen that in opening up to the outside world, the state-owned economy must be guided by the dominant foreign-funded economy. The introduction of foreign capital must be based on rational use. Not as much as possible, and the introduction of foreign investment cannot be turned into foreign-dependent investment.

In summary, the establishment of ownership by the whole people is the consciousness of the main economic characteristics of China’s current socialist economic component. For the party and government leading cadres at all levels, they consciously put the requirements of “four self-confidence”, “not forgetting the original heart, and remembering the mission” In the practice of reform and opening up, it has great practical significance.

We sincerely hope that leaders at all levels will resolutely implement the requirements of the 4th Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on “adhering to the constitutional rule of the country” and “adhering to the constitutional rule”, [29] putting the oath to the constitution into practice in reform and opening up; In accordance with the constitutional stipulations that “all laws, administrative regulations and local laws and regulations cannot contravene the Constitution” [30], carefully review the relevant economic reforms and open policies implemented in their jurisdictions, and resolutely amend the unconstitutional economic policies in accordance with the Constitution. This will certainly promote the healthy development of China’s national economy in the direction of General Secretary Xi’s “people-centered”.

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